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Brexit FAQ

What does Brexit mean for your business?

The UK’s exit from the EU will definitely have an economic impact that all business owners should prepare for. Here is the list of the key areas to change and recommendations for business owners. 

Brexit and finance stocks

International trade

In the case of no-deal Brexit, the UK will totally separate from the EU. In that case, trade between countries will be regulated on the basis of international principles. Businesses will experience the greatest impact with continental European suppliers or customers. Trade with non-EU countries will also be affected by losing access to the EU’s current free trade arrangements. Logistics will slow down as border controls will take place.

Tariffs, or customs duties, will definitely change. Currently, the UK is still trading with the rest of the world according to EU tariff rates. But after the Brexit tariffs will depend either on trade agreements with each separate country or on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules.  

Note, that any import or export business must register for an Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number (the unique ID code used to track and register customs information in the EU). Businesses will not be able to move goods in and out of the UK without one. 

It’s still unknown if the UK manages to reach a free trade deal with the EU. We will keep you updated on the progress.

Workforce

If you run business in the UK, and you hire employees from the European Union European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland, certain measures should be taken. 

Each EU citizen wishing to remain in the UK after the 30th of June 2021 must apply for Settled Status. The application can be done prior to the 30th of December 2020. Learn more about the process and prepare the required documents and photos.

Each business owner should inform  EU workers of the latest developments and of their ability to remain in the UK after Brexit!

Services

UK service providers are currently exporting their services to the EU under the rules of the common market.  In the case of no-deal scenario, the relevant regulatory framework will be the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Note, that the right to provide services in the EU market will not extend automatically, but details are still unveiled.

What can I do for my business in the UK at the moment?

Don’t worry: the Government has already taken measures to help business owners prepare for different scenarios.

First:  contact one of the 31 Local Enterprise Offices (LEOs) across the country. You will receive individual guidance and useful Government support to help you get your business Brexit ready.

Second: read the Brexit Preparedness Checklist produced by the Republic of Ireland government.  It describes the steps you can take now to get ready for Brexit.

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Brexit FAQ

Travel after Brexit

What do I need to do to travel from the UK to Europe/ from Europe to the UK after Brexit?

Traveling between Europe and the UK

If you are planning to travel between the UK and the EU in 2020, you can expect everything to stay the same as before. But when Brexit transition period comes to an end in December 2020, some changes will take place for travellers from both sides of the English Channel.  

We have collected the most useful information for you to know about it.

It’s better to renew your passport

After the transition period, Europe will require British passports to be issued less than 10 years ago. You will also need to have at least 6 months of validity after your intended return date: it’s a common rule when travelling internationally. If you ignore this requirement, you may not be able to travel to most EU countries, as well as to Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.

The same rule applies to EU citizens: to enter the UK you will need a passport that expires in no less than 6 months.

You will not need a visa for a short trip

British tourists will be allowed to stay in EU countries, Liechtenstein, Iceland Norway, and Switzerland for up to 90 days in any 180-day period. But it’s possible, that in 2021 and beyond you may need a visa or permit for a longer stay. There is also a chance that at border control you may be asked to show a return ticket. 

One more change we should expect: when arriving at Passport Control UK Residents will not be able to use the EU Nationals speedy check lanes. So prepare to spend more time entering an EU country than before.

British will need to pass the  ETIAS Travel Authorization (but not right now)

The ETIAS, or the European Travel Information and Authorization System, will be an online system established by the EU. It will be compulsory for citizens of over 60 world countries that so far didn’t need a Schengen visa for short trips. And the UK is in this list as well. Under ETIAS visitors to the Schengen Area will have to obtain an authorization before their trip and pay a €7 fee. An approved ETIAS will be valid for three years or the date of passport expiry. You will be able to use it for stays of up to 90 days in a 180 day period.

Anyway, according to the latest news, the implementation of ETIAS system has been postponed. Now it’s expected to come in force only by 2023.

British drivers may need an International Driving Permit for riding abroad

It’s quite possible, that from 1 January 2021 some European countries will require UK drivers to have extra-documents  (especially for longer visits). International Driving Permit is easy to buy at Post Offices for £5.50. It is still under discussion if IDP will be needed in the EU, but this document is quite useful anyway, as it’s already required or recommended in over 140 countries.

You might also need the Green Card or International Insurance Card for your car, which proves that your insurance covers the minimum cover in the country you’re driving in. Ask your insurance company if they can supply you with one.

Free mobile roaming may end (but it’s also not certain yet)

Anyway, it will up to individual providers to decide whether or not they set charges. Currently the key UK networks like O2, Vodafone, Tesco Mobile, Giffgaff, etc. assure that they have no plans to change free roaming in Europe. But in future, their positions may change.

However, you will be protected from mobile data charges above £45 without you knowing. Operators are also required to send an alert once you’ve reached 80% and 100% of your own data roaming limit. 

You may need to declare your cash at the border if you have £10,000 or more

From 1 January 2021, it will be compulsory to declare cash of €10,000 or more (or the equivalent in another currency) if you take it between the UK and the EU (as well as between the UK and any non-EU country). Cash declaration can be easily done online

You may need new insurance

The future of the European Health Insurance Card for UK citizens is not certain. The EHIC currently entitles you to state-provided medical treatment if you fall ill or have an accident in any country of the Schengen area. But if the UK leaves the EU without a deal, the EHIC will no longer be valid. The government is currently advising those who are planning to travel within the European Union or to Switzerland, to ensure they purchase adequate travel insurance.

Travel photographs

Last update: March 10, 2020.

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Brexit. What EU citizens living in the UK need to know

I am a Polish / Lithuanian / Latvian / Romanian / Greek / Portuguese / Czech citizen. What do I need to do to continue living and working in 2021 and beyond in the UK?

British flag & EU flag

Answer: The EU Settlement Scheme allows you to continue to live, work and study in the UK. It means you continue to be eligible for:

  • public services, such as healthcare and schools
  • public funds and pensions
  • British citizenship, if you want to apply and meet the requirements

Am I eligible to apply?

To apply, you need to be an EU citizen or a non-EU family member of an EU citizen.

You need to be living in the UK by 31 December 2020.

If you have been living in the UK for more than five continuous years at the point when you apply then you will be eligible for settled status. If you have been a resident for less than five continuous years at that point, you will be eligible for pre-settled status. 

What about my family members?

If you are an EU citizen living in the UK, you and your family members are protected under the EU Settlement Scheme. Family members do not need to be from the EU; they can come from anywhere in the world (referred to as non-EU citizen family members).

Close family members that are not living in the UK by 31 December 2020 will be able to join you in the UK at any point in the future. They will need to be able to show their relationship to you and it must still exist when they apply to come to the UK. Close family members include spouses, civil partners, unmarried partners, dependant children and grandchildren, and dependant parents and grandparents. 

Children born or adopted after 31 December 2020 will also have their rights protected.

When can I apply?

The EU Settlement Scheme will fully open by 30 March 2019. You will then have until 30 June 2021 to apply and your rights will remain unchanged until then, provided that you are resident in the UK by 31 December 2020.

How does the application process work?

You can access the application online using a computer, tablet or mobile phone. If you want, you can save your application and complete it later on. 

When you apply, you’ll need proof of:

  • your identity
  • your residence in the UK, unless you have a valid permanent residence document, or valid indefinite leave to remain in or enter the UK
  • your relationship to a family member from the EU living in the UK, if you’re from outside the EU
  • Proof of identity

When you apply, you’ll be able to either:

  • scan your identity document using a compatible Android mobile phone or tablet – you can use someone else’s phone or tablet to do this
  • send your document by post

Book an appointment with one of the three organisations listed below to have your ID verified:

Tower Hamlets Council Register Office

The Limehouse Project

East End Citizens Advice Bureau

Praxis

You’ll also need to upload a recent digital photo of your face conforming to the UK Passport Office requirements.

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Brexit. What UK citizens living abroad need to know

I am a UK citizen. What do I need to do to continue living in 2021 and beyond in Spain / France / Germany / Greece / Bulgaria / Ireland/ Netherlands / Cyprus / Poland / Belgium / Sweden / Denmark / Portugal?

Brexit and EU

Member States have prepared or adopted national contingency measures to ensure that UK nationals and their non-EU family members could remain legally resident in the immediate period after a no-deal withdrawal.

Spain

Spain will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable for a 21 months grace period starting on the day of withdrawal with no agreement. You will need to have a residence document to prove these rights after the grade period.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until the end of the 21 months grace period. By this moment, you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the specific ad hoc regime approved. In this specific case, your registration certificate will automatically be replaced by a residence document for third country nationals at the policia nacional offices.

b) If you do not have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible as from the day after of a no deal withdrawal with the Oficinas de Extranjería (Inmigration offices) For information on the application process, please visit this website:  https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/brexit/Paginas/index.aspx and http://www.mitramiss.gob.es/es/brexit/index.htm

c) You will NOT receive a letter from the national administration informing on your situation. This letter will NOT be considered as your temporary residence permit. During this transitional period of 21 month starting the day after a no deal withdrawal you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the new specific rules that have been already published in the Spanish official diary. See:    https://www.boe.es/eli/es/rdl/2019/03/01/5/dof/spa/pdf  AND https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2019/03/26/pdfs/BOE-A-2019-4356.pdf

Make your Spanish TIE card photo here.

France

France will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until one year from the date of withdrawal of the United Kingdom. You will need to have a residence document to prove these rights.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until one year from the date of withdrawal of the United Kingdom. Within six months from the date of withdrawal of the United Kingdom, you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the new specific rules that will be in place by that time.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible from the date of withdrawal of the United Kingdom and during six months. The possibility of doing these applications online is currently envisaged in order to facilitate the process. For information on the application process, please visit the website https://brexit.gouv.fr/sites/brexit/accueil/vous-etes-britannique/droit-au-sejour.html

Get a France ID card photo at visafoto.com.

Germany

Germany will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable for nine months after Brexit date

a) During this transitional period, you will have to apply for a residence permit, according to the applicable immigration rules for residence of third country nationals that will be partially adapted to the specific situation.

Applications are possible during the transitional period with the relevant foreigners’ authorities in the federal states. For finding the responsible foreigners authority, please visit this website https://www.bamf.de/SiteGlobals/Functions/WebGIS/EN/WebGIS_Auslaenderbehoerde.html

Make a German residence permit photo here.

Greece

Greece will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until 31/12/2020. You will need to have a residence document to prove these rights.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until 31/12/2020. During this transitional period, you will have to apply for a new residence document, according to the applicable immigration rules for residence of third country nationals and new specific rules that are in place.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence document. Applications are possible as from the withdrawal date (any change will officially be announced) with the competent police authorities handling issued of aliens of your home area. For information on the application process, please visit the website www.astynomia.gr.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria will protect your residence rights through a national procedure for re-registration. You are eligible to apply under the scheme if you are legally residing in Bulgaria on the date of Brexit.  

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until 31 December 2020 or the date written on the document if it is before 31 December 2020. During this transitional period – After Brexit day – you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the new specific rules that will be in place on Brexit day.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible as from the day following the date of Brexit with the national Ministry of Interior. For information on the application process, please visit this websiteL https://www.mvr.bg/en/about-the-ministry/brexit/information-about-brexit

c) On filing your application you will receive a temporary permit valid for one month until the formal procedure is complete.  During this transitional period/After Brexit, you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the new rules.

Get a Bulgaria ID card photo online at visafoto.com.

Ireland

All UK nationals have a right under the Common Travel Area to live in Ireland.

You do not need to take any action to continue to live in Ireland after the Brexit date.

What will my rights be?   

Under the Common Travel Area (CTA), British citizens can move freely to, and reside in, Ireland and can enjoy associated rights and privileges including access to employment, healthcare, education, social benefits, and the right to vote in certain elections.

The Government of Ireland and the UK Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 8 May 2019‌, reaffirming their commitment to maintaining the CTA in all circumstances.

More details can be found here: https://www.dfa.ie/brexit/getting-ireland-brexit-ready/brexit-and-you/common-travel-area/

Make an Ireland passport and ID photo for the online application at Visafoto.

Netherlands

The Netherlands will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable after a no deal Brexit during a transition period. During this transition period, UK nationals will keep their rights to reside, work and study in the Netherlands. This also applies if you are the relative of a UK national and are not an EU citizen yourself. Before the Brexit date, the IND will send you a temporary residence permit in the form of a letter. Many of you have already received this important document. The letter in combination with a valid passport will serve as proof of your residency rights during a no deal transition period. You do not need to take any action yourself to obtain this letter, other than to ensure you are correctly registered in the Personal Records Database (BRP) at your municipality: the letter will be sent to the address at which you are registered.  

During the transition period, you will be invited to apply for a new residence permit, according to the applicable legal residence rules for EU citizens.

Make a Netherlands ID photo at visafoto.com online.

Cyprus

Cyprus will protect your residence rights, and those of your family, through specific legislative measures that have been adopted and will apply in case of a “no-deal” Brexit (Law N121(I)/2019).  You will need to hold valid residence documents to prove these rights.

Step 1: Between now and 31/12/2020

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU freedom of movement rules (MEU1, MEU2, MEU3), this will be considered as your temporary residence permit, valid until 31/12/2020.  After 31/12/2020, you will need to apply for the new type of residence permit, according to the provisions of national law N121(I)/2019 (see Step 2 below).

b) If you do not have a residence document as above, we recommend that you apply for one as soon as possible, under current EU rules.  Provided you will have been residing in Cyprus up until 31/10/2019, you will still be able to apply after this date, up until 31/12/2020; however, you are encouraged to do so as soon as possible.  You will receive a residence permit under EU law.  This will be considered as your temporary residence permit, valid until 31/12/2020.  After 31/12/2020, you will need to apply for the new type of residence permit, according to the provisions of national law N121(I)/2019 (see Step 2 below).

Applications by UK nationals legally residing in Cyprus prior to 31/10/2019 can be submitted at the Civil Registry and Migration Department, or the Local Immigration Offices.  For information on the application process, please visit the website www.moi.gov.cy/crmd.

Step 2: After 31/12/2020

c) As of 1/1/2021, you will need to apply for the new type of residence permit as set out in Law N121(I)/2019.

In applying for this document, if you hold a valid residence document issued under EU rules as per (a) or (b) above, you will only need to further submit a valid passport as proof of identity.

If you do not hold such documents as specified in (a) or (b) above, you will be required to submit documentary evidence of your residence in Cyprus prior to 31/10/2019.

Get your Cyprus ID card photo online at Visafoto.

Poland

Poland will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until 31/12/2020. Your stay in Poland will be considered legal ex lege from the withdrawal date until 31.12.2020 provided that you enjoyed the right of residence or the right of permanent residence in Poland under the Directive 2004/38/EC before the withdrawal date. However, it will be useful to have a residence document to prove these rights.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, with an exception of certificate of registration, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until 31/ 12/2020. These documents may remain valid after the date until 30.09.2021 at the latest only on Polish territory for evidence purposes. During this transitional period, you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the  new specific rules that will be in place by that time. A stamp imprint annotated “BREXIT” made in the travel document, confirming submission of an application for a dedicated temporary or permanent residence permit along with a separate certificate with a one year validity period will be considered as your temporary residence permit until the final decision on the application.

If you were granted permanent residence permit (with unlimited validity) before the accession of the Republic of Poland to the European Union you will retain this right. You will not need to apply for residence permit. Application for renewal of the residence card (issued for 10 years) may only be needed.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible as from day of Brexit with the voivode competent with respect of the place of stay in Poland. A stamp imprint annotated “BREXIT” made in the travel document, confirming submission of an application for a dedicated temporary or permanent residence permit along with a separate certificate with a one year validity period will be considered as your temporary residence permit until the final decision on the application.

For information on the application process, please visit this website https://udsc.gov.pl/en/cudzoziemcy/brexit/materials-to-download

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Belgium

Belgium will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until 31 December 2020. You will need to have a residence document to prove these rights.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until 31 December 2020. After 31 December 2020, you will have to apply for a new residence permit. A decision has not yet been taken whether you will have to apply for a new residence permit, according to the applicable immigration rules for residence of third country nationals or according to new specific rules that will be in place by that time.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible as from the Brexit date. For information on the application process, please visit this website http://dofi.ibz.be.

c) You will be kept informed by the Immigration Office on your situation.

Get your Belgium electronic ID card photo here.

Sweden

Sweden will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable from the date of the withdrawal and for one year after the withdrawal. During this transitional period, you will have to apply for a residence permit or a long-term residence status, according to the Swedish Alien Act. You can already now apply for a residence permit at the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket). For information on the application process, please visit this website www.migrationsverket.se

Make a Sweden ID card photo online at visafoto.com.

Denmark

Denmark will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until replaced by a permanent solution.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until otherwise is decided.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you are encouraged to submit an application for such documentation before the withdrawal date in order to be able to prove your rights. For information on the application process, please visit this website https://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-GB/You-want-to-apply/Residence-as-a-Nordic-citizen-or-EU-or-EEA-citizen

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Portugal

Portugal will protect your residence rights through transitional measures that will be applicable until 31/12/2020. Your residence document is needed to prove these rights. Otherwise, a requirement procedure will be open to prove your residence.

a) If you already have a residence document issued under EU free movement law, this will be considered as your temporary residence permit until 31/12/2020. During this transitional period.

b) If you do not have a residence document, you will have to apply for a residence permit. Applications are possible as from withdrawal date with the local authority. For information on the application process, please visit this website www.sef.pt

Get your Portugal ID card photo at visafoto.com online.